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All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Battery

This example shows how to use the Tertiary Current Distribution interface to model the currents and electrolyte mass transport in a thin-film all-solid-state lithium-ion battery. A separate Transport of Diluted Species interface is coupled to the electrochemical reactions to model the mass transport of lithium in the positive electrode. Various discharge currents are studied, and the ...

Heterogeneous Lithium-Ion Battery Model

This model describes the behavior of a lithium-ion battery unit cell modeled using an idealized three-dimensional geometry. The geometry mimics the structural details in the porous electrodes. Such models are referred to as heterogeneous models. The modeling approach for heterogeneous models differs from typical battery models, such as the Newman model. In homogeneous models, averaged ...

Ohmic Losses and Temperature Distribution in a Passive PEM Fuel Cell

In small PEM fuel cell systems (in the sub-100 W range) no active devices for cooling or air transport are normally used. This is due to the desire to minimize parasitic power losses from pumps and fans, and to reduce the system complexity, size, and cost. The reactants at the cathode are therefore transported by passive convection/diffusion. Also the heat dissipation occurs by passive transport ...

Lithium-Ion Battery with Multiple Intercalating Electrode Materials

Lithium-ion batteries can have multiple active materials in both the positive and negative electrodes. For example, the positive electrode can have a mix of active materials such as transition metal oxides, layered metal oxides, olivines etc. These materials can have different design properties (volume fraction, particle size), thermodynamic properties (open circuit voltage), transport ...

1D Lithium-Ion Battery Drive-Cycle Monitoring

This application shows how a battery cell exposed to a hybrid electric vehicle drive cycle can be investigated with the Lithium-Ion Battery interface in COMSOL. This model predicts the battery behavior to make comparisons of the monitored properties. They can be used to understand the battery's behavior during the cycle better, since the model includes can calculate more than is measurable, for ...

1D Lithium-Ion Battery Model for Power vs Energy Evaluation

A battery’s possible energy and power outputs are crucial to consider when deciding in which type of device it can be used. A cell with high rate capability is able to generate a considerable amount of power, that is, it suffers from little polarization (voltage loss) even at high current loads. In contrast, a low rate-capability cell has the opposite behavior. The former type is often denoted ...

Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy in a Fuel Cell

A fuel cell unit cell is modeled using the full Butler-Volmer expression for the anodic and cathodic charge transfer reactions. The anodic and cathodic overpotentials depend on the local ionic and electronic potentials, which are obtained from the charge balance equations for ionic and electronic current. A small sinusoidal perturbation of the potential around a given cell voltage is applied and ...

Edge Effects In a Spirally Wound Lithium-Ion Battery

Due to the large differences in length scales in a lithium-ion battery, with the thickness of the different layers typically being several orders of magnitude smaller than the extension in the sheet direction, a lithium-ion battery is often well represented by a one-dimensional model. However, the packing and stacking of the battery may cause edge effects which motivate modeling in higher ...

1D Lithium-Ion Battery Model for Internal Resistance and Voltage Loss Determination

This tutorial digs deeper into the investigation of rate capability in a battery and shows how the *Lithium-Ion Battery* interface is an excellent modeling tool for doing this. The rate capability is studied in terms of polarization (voltage loss) or the internal resistance causing this loss. A typical high current pulse test, namely a Hybrid Pulse Power Characterization (HPPC) test, is ...

1D Lithium-Ion Battery Model for Determination of Optimal Battery Usage and Design

This application example is useful for investigation of the following: Voltage, polarization (voltage drop), internal resistance, state-of-charge (SOC), and rate capability, in lithium-ion batteries under isothermal conditions. Some of the listed properties play an important role in battery management systems (BMS) in, for instance, electric and hybrid electric vehicles (see figure). The more ...