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Rising Bubble

The level set method is well suited for problems with moving boundaries in which the geometry’s topology changes with time. A bubble of oil that travels up through water and finally merges with oil at the top causes this kind of topology change. For problems where the topology is unchanged as a function of time, as in free surface movement in a tank (no splashing) and impeller stirring, it is ...

The Magnus Effect

The Magnus effect explains the curl that soccer players can give the ball, resulting in the enjoyable goals that we can see in every World Cup™. This model looks at the Magnus effect in the laminar and turbulent flow regimes for transient and stationary flows. It also discusses the simulation results and relates them to experimental measurements on soccer balls found in the literature.

Pipe Erosion due to Contaminant Particles

The _Particle Tracing for Fluid Flow_ interface is used to compute the erosion of a pipe bend. The amount of material lost is computed using different erosion models.

Gravity and Boundary Conditions

The influence of gravity on the flow pattern is often an important issue when modeling flow in fluids with variable density. You can account for this influence in the model equations by adding, to the momentum balances, the volume force. This model shows a simple example of the implementation of boundary conditions when volumetric forces are included in the momentum balances. This can be ...

Sloshing Two-Phase Flow in an Automobile Fuel Tank

Sloshing occurs in the tanks of vehicles during rapid acceleration and braking. This can be significantly reduced by inserting internal baffles into the tanks, positioned in a way so that the amplitude of the sloshing oscillation is dampened. Simulation can help to estimate effective designs for the baffles. The model investigates the two-phase flow in a realistic tank geometry, while tracking ...

Two-Phase Flow Modeling of a Dense Suspension

Liquid-solid mixtures (suspensions) are important in a variety of industrial fields, such as oil and gas refinement, paper manufacturing, food processing, slurry transport, and wastewater treatment. Several different modeling approaches have been developed by the CFD community, ranging from discrete, particle-based methods to macroscopic, semi-empirical two-phase descriptions. This model ...

Water Purification Reactor

Water treatment basins are used in industrial-scale processes in order to remove bacteria or other contaminants, such as for making water safe to drink. The Water Treatment Basin application exemplifies the use of apps for modeling turbulent flow and material balances subject to chemical reactions. You can specify the dimensions and orientation of the basin, mixing baffles, and inlet and outlet ...

Bubble-induced Entrainment Between Stratified Liquid Layers

This model is a benchmark for three-phase flow commonly used in food processing, pharmaceutical industry, and chemical processing. The results are validated against data reported in the literature. A gas bubble rises through two layers of liquid, a lighter liquid resting on top of a heavier one. As the bubble travels from the heavier liquid, it entrains some of the heavier liquid in its wake ...

Non-Newtonian Flow

This model shows the influence of shear rate dependent viscosity on the flow of a linear polystyrene solution. For this type of flow, you can use the Carreau viscosity model. Due to rotational symmetry, it is possible to reduce the model dimensions from 3D to axisymmetric 2D.

Flow of Oldroyd-B Viscoelastic Fluid

Many complex fluids of interest exhibit a combination of viscous and elastic behavior under strain. Examples of such fluids are polymer solutions and melts, oil, toothpaste, and clay, among many others. The Oldroyd-B fluid presents one of the simplest constitutive models capable of describing the viscoelastic behavior of dilute polymeric solutions under general flow conditions. Despite the ...