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Degradation of DNA in Plasma

Biotechnology is a rapidly growing area in the pharmaceutical sciences. One example of a clinical application is gene therapy, where it is possible to produce proteins in vivo, using the body’s own mechanisms for protein production. Major issues in gene delivery involve the transport of plasmid DNA (pDNA) to target sites and the conversion between different forms of pDNA. This example ...

Semibatch Polymerization

As reactant monomer converts into polymer chains, the density of the reacting mixture often changes notably. In this example you will look at how this effect impacts the total production of polymer in a process. The liquid phase polymerization takes place in a semibatch reactor, where two operating conditions are compared. In the first scenario, the feed of monomer to the reactor is turned off ...

Parameter Estimation for Nonideal Reactor Models

Real reactors can be modeled as combinations of ideal reactors. In this example the so-called "Dead zone model" is utilized. Two ideal CSTRs with interchange are set up to model the real reactor. One CSTR represents the highly agitated region and the other the less agitated region. For this, two parameters relating the volume and exchange rate of the two regions need to be found by comparing ...

Competing Reactions

Tutorial model of a set of two competing reactions. The model demonstrates: - A good modeling strategy for reaction engineering - How to go from chemical equations to space-dependent models of reacting flow with a minimum of work.

Tank Series with Feedback Control

This example illustrates how to set up and solve a tank-in-series model in 0D using the Reaction Engineering interface. The model treats a series of three consecutive tank reactors. A feedback loop continuously adjusts the inlet concentration of the first tank to keep the concentration at the outlet of the last reactor close to a set level.

Water Purification by Silver Complexation

Many industrial processes leave remainders of toxic dissolved metal ions in process flows. A common method for removing metal ions from water is complexation. This model example shows a purification reactor where silver ions are complexated to diamine-silver for removal. Ammonia (L) is added across a membrane in a tubular reactor in order to remove silver ions (M) from a water stream. A metal ...

Determining the Reaction Order from Pressure-Time Data

This model shows how to use the Parameter Estimation feature in the Reaction Engineering interface to find the rate constant and reaction order for the gas phase decomposition of di-tert-butyl-peroxide.

Modeling of an Enzyme-Based Biofuel Cell Anode

Enzyme-based biofuel cells (EBFCs) use biomass and specific enzymes known as biocatalysts in order to convert chemical energy into electrical energy. At the anode of an EBFC, the biomass (substrate) is oxidized to produce protons and electrons. Mediators are used in the anode to shuttle the electrons from enzymes to electrodes. At the cathode, the oxidant (oxygen) reacts with the protons and ...

Creating a Phase Envelope with a Multicomponent Flash Calculation

* A flash calculation is an equilibrium calculation of a system where several components (species) and phases are present at the same time. This is a demonstration how to use the thermodynamics interface to make flash calculations from data provided external thermodynamic databases. The system in this model is Methane/Ethane/Propane, which would require 3D surfaces to plot the phase envelope. ...

Danckwerts Benchmark

This model compares the solution to the model equations of a tubular reactor using Danckwerts inlet and outlet conditions. A second almost identical model is defined with extra inlet and outlet sections where no reactions occur. The concentration at the beginning of the inlet section is fixed. The results with Danckwerts conditions and with fixed inlet concentrations are compared.