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Transmission Line Butler Matrix Beamforming Network

A Butler matrix is a passive beamforming feed network. It is a cost-effective feed network for phased array antennas because the circuit can be fabricated in the form of microstrip lines and is a viable solution for performing beam scanning without deploying expensive active devices. This example shows how to design such a circuit using the *Transmission Line* interface. The results show the ...

Designing a Waveguide Diplexer for the 5G Mobile Network

A diplexer is a device that combines or splits signals into two different frequency bands, widely used in mobile communication systems. This model simulates splitting properties using a simplified 2D geometry. The computed S-parameters and electric fields at the lower and upper bands will show the diplexer characteristics in the Ka-band.

Dielectric Resonator Antenna

A dielectric resonator placed near a radiating element can be used to increase directivity and gain. Here, a block of quartz dielectric, with additional passive metallic antenna elements, is placed above a slot antenna. The fields in and around the antenna are solved for. The far field pattern and impedance is computed and improved performance is seen.

Rat-Race Coupler

A 180° Ring Hybrid (Rat-Race Coupler) is a four-port network with 180° phase difference between two ports. It is cheaper to manufacture this type of microstrip line component compared to a wave guide 180° hybrid junction, so called magic-T. The objective of this model is to compute the S-parameters and to observe the matching, isolation, and coupling around the operating frequency.

Characteristic Parameters of a Coaxial Cable

Electrical cables, also called transmission lines, are used everywhere in the modern world to transmit both power and data. These cables carry electromagnetic energy, but instead of dealing with the full complexity of the electromagnetic fields, they are more commonly classified according to parameters such as capacitance, inductance, and impedance. In this model of a coaxial cable, we ...

Thermal Drift in a Microwave Cavity Filter

Microwave filters are used to eliminate unwanted frequency components in the output from microwave transmitters. They are typically inserted between a power amplifier and an antenna. The amplifiers are nonlinear and produce harmonics that must be eliminated with filters that have a rather narrow passband. Due to high power loads but also possibly from harsh environmental conditions (such as a ...

Evanescent Mode Cylindrical Cavity Filter

An evanescent-mode cavity filter is resonant at a frequency lower than its original fundamental mode frequency. Evanescent mode resonance can be realized by creating a discontinuity or reactance inside the cavity. The basic model was modified by the addition of a metal box at either end representing a housing. Inside a dielectric substrate and a microstrip line coupled into the cavity. The ...

Tunable Evanescent Mode Cavity Filter Using a Piezo Actuator

An evanescent mode cavity filter can be realized by adding a structure inside of the cavity. This structure changes the resonant frequency lower than the dominant mode of the unfilled cavity. A piezo actuator is used to control the size of a small air gap which provides the tunability of the resonant frequency.

Radome with Double-layered Dielectric Lens

A radome minimizes losses and improves radiation characteristics of an antenna through its design. The structure can be optimized to minimize the transmission loss and also designed to improve radiation characteristics including antenna directivity and side lobes. Shown in the model is the surface current density on the patch antenna, the magnitude of the electric potential on the antenna's ...

Circular Waveguide Filter

A circular waveguide filter is designed using a 2D axisymmetric model. Six annular rings added to the waveguide form circular cavities connected in series, and each cavity cutoff frequency is close to the center frequency of the filter. The simulated S-parameters show a bandpass frequency response.