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Self-Focusing

A Gaussian beam is launched into BK-7 optical glass. The material has an intensity-dependent refractive index. At the center of the beam, the refractive index is the largest. The induced refractive index profile counteracts diffraction and actually focuses the beam. Self-focusing is important in the design of high-power laser systems. The model demonstrates 3D nonlinear wave propagation.

Fabry-Perot Cavity

This is an example of a Fabry-Perot cavity, the simplest optical resonator structure. It is a classical problem in optics and photonics. Two methods are shown for computing the Q-factor. The losses in this model are purely via radiation away from the resonator.

Step-Index Fiber Bend

The first part of the application computes the modes for a straight step index fiber made of silica glass. In the second part, a step index fiber bend with a 3 mm radius of curvature is analyzed with respect to propagating modes and radiation loss. It is shown how to find the power averaged mode radius and how to use this to compute the effective mode index.

Gaussian Beam Incident at the Brewster Angle

This model demonstrates the polarization properties for a Gaussian beam incident at an interface between two media at the Brewster angle. The model shows how to use the Electromagnetic Waves, Beam Envelopes physics interface with a User defined phase specification. Matched Boundary Condition features are used for absorbing waves incident to boundaries at non-normal directions.

Nanorods

A Gaussian electromagnetic wave is incident on a dense array of very thin wires (or rods). The distance between the rods and, thus, the rod diameter is much smaller than the wavelength. Under these circumstances, the rod array does not function as a diffraction grating (see the Plasmonic Wire Grating model). Instead, the rod array behaves as if it was a continuous metal sheet for light polarized ...

Hexagonal Grating

A plane wave is incident on a reflecting hexagonal grating. The grating cell consists of a protruding semisphere. The scattering coefficients for the different diffraction orders are calculated for a few different wavelengths.

Beam Splitter

A beam splitter is used to split a single beam of light into two. One way of making a splitter is to deposit a thin layer of metal between two glass prisms. The beam is slightly attenuated within the layer, and split into two paths. In this example, the thin metal layer is modeled using a transition boundary condition which reduces the memory requirements. Losses in the metal layer are also ...

Defining a Mapped Dielectric Distribution of a Metamaterial Lens (Wave Optics)

In this example, the properties of an engineered metamaterial are modeled by a spatially varying dielectric distribution. Specifically, a convex lens shape is defined via a known deformation of a rectangular domain. The dielectric distribution is defined on the undeformed, original rectangular domain and is mapped onto the deformed shape of the lens. Although the lens shape defined here is ...

Multipole Analysis of Electromagnetic Scattering

The multipole expansion is a powerful tool for analyzing electromagnetic waves scattered by small objects. In the expansion, the scattered field is represented as a superposition of the fields created by a finite set of point multipoles. Each point multipole is connected to a unique electric current mode in the object. This connection can be harnessed to design scatterers with prescribed ...

Time-Domain Modeling of Dispersive Drude-Lorentz Media

This tutorial shows how to solve the full time-dependent wave equation in dispersive media such as plasmas and semiconductors. The 2D TM in-plane wave model solves for the vector potential from the wave equation and for an auxiliary electric polarization density from an ordinary differential equation. The geometry consists of a single dispersive slab with a sub-wavelength slit in it. Periodic ...