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Buoyancy–driven μPCR for DNA Amplification

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is one of the most effective methods in molecular biology, medical diagnostics, and biochemical engineering in amplifying a specific sequence of DNA. There has been a great interest in developing portable PCR-based lab-on-a-chip systems for point-of-care applications and one strategy that seems very promising is natural convection-based PCR. This model studies ...

Truss Bridge Designer

The Truss Bridge Designer app is an example of how to design a simulation tool for a class of civil engineering structures, in this case a Pratt truss bridge. Such a bridge is characterized by the diagonal beams on each side of the bridge, which all slant down and in toward the center of the span. Because of this design, the diagonal beams are subjected only to tension, while the vertical beams, ...

1D Isothermal Lithium-Air Battery

Rechargeable lithium-air batteries have recently attracted great interest mainly due to their high energy density. The theoretical value is about 11400 Wh/kg which is around 10 times greater than the lithium-ion batteries. In this tutorial, discharge of a lithium-air battery is simulated using the *Lithium-ion Battery* interface. The transport of oxygen (from external air) in the porous carbon ...

Pressurized Orthotropic Container

A thin-walled container made of rolled steel is subjected to an internal overpressure. As an effect of the manufacturing method, one of the three material principal directions—the out-of- plane direction— has a higher yield stress than the other two. Hill’s orthotropic plasticity is used to model the difference in yield strength. The example also shows how to define and use curvilinear ...

Behavior of Power Law Fluids in a Mixer

This model shows how to use simulations to predict power numbers with Power Law fluids in a mixer. It simulates the behavior of flow in a flat bottom tank with a single four-blade pitched impeller. The flow was modeled as laminar and the frozen rotor approach was used to solve the discrete governing equations in one quarter of a baffled tank. The calculated power numbers were compared with ...

Atmospheric Corrosion

This model simulates atmospheric galvanic corrosion of an aluminum alloy in contact with steel. The electrolyte film thickness depends on the relative humidity of the surrounding air and the salt load density of NaCl crystals on the metal surface. Empirical expressions for the oxygen diffusivity and solubility are also included in the model in order to derive an expression for the limiting ...

Doppler Shift

We have all noticed the Doppler effect when an ambulance passes by with its sirens blaring. The siren’s pitch suddenly drops the moment the ambulance starts moving away from you. Another effect you can notice is how the siren’s sound is very loud when nearby, but as soon as the ambulance has passed the sound becomes much quieter. This model simulates the acoustic Doppler effect by placing ...

Polarizing Beam Splitter

Polarizing beam splitter cubes consist of two right-angled prisms where a dielectric coating is applied to the intermediate surface. The cube transmits part of the incident wave while reflecting the other part. An advantage of using this cube design, instead of a plate design, for beam splitters is that ghost images are avoided. This new app demonstrates the basic MacNeille design, which ...

Semibatch Polymerization

As reactant monomer converts into polymer chains, the density of the reacting mixture often changes notably. In this example you will look at how this effect impacts the total production of polymer in a process. The liquid phase polymerization takes place in a semibatch reactor, where two operating conditions are compared. In the first scenario, the feed of monomer to the reactor is turned off ...

Argon Boltzmann Analysis

The electron energy distribution function (EEDF) plays an important role in the overall behavior of discharges. Analytic forms of the EEDF exist such as Maxwellian or Druyvesteyn, but in some cases they fail to fit the discharge physics. This tutorial model investigates the effects of various parameters on the electron energy distribution function and rate coefficients for an argon discharge.